Investigation Committee of the Interior Ministry made a decisive step while investigating one of the largest corruption crimes in nowadays Russia - a theft of $ 1 billion from the budget of the Moscow region. On August, 5 the offices of the group of companies "Orsi" were searched ("Open Market of Building Investments) and several other locations in Moscow and Moscow region associated with this firm, led by Andrey Pashkovsky and Georgy Kopylenko.

Raiders got stumble in the Moscow region assets

The offices on Butikovskiy Lane, 16 (where OOO “Orsi group”, ZAO " FPG "Stolitsa" and OOO "Chelovek I zakon") and Ostozhenka, 10 (extra office group) were raided, as well as in private houses of Pashkovsky and Kopylenko in the elite settlement "Benelux" on Novorizhskoye highway. The subject of the investigation was the theft of assets of "RIGroup" totaling more than $ 500 million, which was to be returned to the Government of Moscow region as a result of restructuring, but never was returned to the budget.


The tool of the grand theft, a kind of "commercial master key", was ZAO "Project", to which the most liquid assets "RIGroup" had been re-registered instead of returning them to the treasury. However, the group of Pashkovsky and Kopylenko had dozens of controlled entities, including "Orsi groups", ZAO "FPG" Stolitsa” and ZAO “DISA-invest”. These structures had been carrying out hostile takeovers in various regions of Russia for ten years, which the media called a forceful takeover.


The objects of the attacks were the firm “Aviatehnologiya” and construction and industrial company "SPK Razvitie” in Moscow, Boxitogorsk alumina refinery in the Leningrad region, the company" Irkutsky marganets” in Siberia, Kulebaksky Metallurgical factory and Kulebaksky ring-rolling factory in Nizhny Novgorod region, ZAO "Barit” in Khakassia, and a number of other enterprises, the seizure of which has been repeatedly reported in print and electronic media in recent years.


The last operation by that successful masters of hostile mergers and acquisitions became the assignment of liquid assets in the Moscow region, such as OOO “RIGroup ", OAO "Rosveb”, OOO “Radionet "and their subsidiaries. It is natural that the raid group, which had been operating in Russia for decades, got collapsed as soon as it attempted to seize the assets belonging to public authorities - the Government of Moscow Region. However, investigators from the UK under the MIA so far managed to detain and interrogate only Kopylenko Georgy (former CEO of ZAO "Project") and former deputy director of "Orsi" Zoya Galeeva (100% owner of ZAO "Project"). The Director-General of "Orsi" Andrey Pashkovsky had disappeared even before the searches.

The budget was pumped for $ 1 billion

The origins of the fraud can be traced in a criminal case number 280008, filed by IC of Interior Ministry on February 12, this year. The defendants in the case are the former Finance Minister of the Moscow region Alexey Kuznetsov, his wife, Janna Bulakh (this American citizen introduced herself as a president of the American real estate development corporation RIGroup - Janna Bullock), a former deputy of Kuznetsov of the Moscow region Finance Ministry, Valery Nosov (currently in jail) and a U.S. citizen Dmitry Kotlyarenko, who served as director-general of RIGroup.


By the order of their ministry Kuznetsov and Nosov Swipe initiated an additional issue and thus diluted the assets of "Rosveb" and deprived of a controlling stake OAO "MOITK", 100% owned by the Government of Moscow Region. The control over "Rosveb” was intercepted by the business structures of "RIGroup", belonging to Bulakh and Kotlyarenko. 7.2 billion rubles has been allocated from the regional budget, on which the controlled structures paid for the shares of "Rosveb”. These funds did not reach the addressee as well –that was "MOITK": under the pretext of financing the construction of business center, they were returned in "Moscow Mortgage Bank”, controlled by Kotlyarenko - under the fictitious contracts.


In addition, during the four years Kuznetsov and Nosov gave direct instructions to Director General of "MOITK" Vladislav Telepnev to transfer the funds belonging to the company (and, accordingly, to the Government of Moscow region) on accounts of their firms. There were over twenty operations like this, the result was: OAO MOITK " (its only shareholder was the Government of Moscow region) gave to the bureaucratic business speculators more than 23.8 billion rubles. Together with the theft from the budget on the part of subordinates Kuznetsova and Bullock (for example, Dmitry Demidov, a former employee of "RIGroup”, and then the leader of the two subsidiaries of the Moscow Region Government - IKMO and MOIA) the total amount of" pumping "was almost $ 1 billion.

Memorandum “from the thief to the thief "

There is about a dozen criminal cases in respect of members of Kuznetsov’s group investigated by. Kuznetsov and Bullock fled abroad in July 2008, and Dmitry Kotlyarenko was arrested in Cyprus and is waiting for extradition to Russia in the local jail at the request of the Prosecutor General. However, the fugitives actually handed the baton to another light-fingered gang by Pashkovsky and Kopylenko – the evidence is memorandum signed by Andrey Pashkovsky and fugitive Finance Minister Alexey Kuznetsov in December 2008.


The general sense of the document is as follows. Kuznetsov, referred to as "Party 1", passes to Pashkovsky the right to manage and to restructure of the pumped assets (dozens of Russian legal entities and offshores with an intricate financial system of mutual settlements - see Figure 1) and all the data about them until January 15, 2009. in his turn, Pashkovsky referred to as "Party 2", guarantees Kuznetsov the fulfillment of obligations, some restructuring, "... maintaining current operations and financial solvency to the structures of RIGroup, the implementation of their commitments" ... Also Pashkovsky promises to the fugitive ex-official a settlement of the property and other claims."


The other claims, as one might guess, are the prosecution of Kuznetsov and his wife by Russian law enforcement bodies. Such a promise looks like fraud. Due to the fact Pashkovsky, according to witnesses, enjoyed introducing himself as a person close to the emperor, or as the assistant to the first vice-premier Igor Shuvalov, he does not obtain a single public office post. Indeed he can not guarantee the inaction of law enforcement agencies.

"Steal the stolen!"

However, as shown by the following two years, Pashkovsky, Kopylenko and their management team trained in raider wars did not plan to return the funds stolen by Kuznetsov’s and Bullock’s clan to the Moscow region. Instead, the most expensive and liquid assets were either sold or transferred to the balance of legal entities and offshore controlled by them (see Figure 2).Thus, the land plots, businesses and infrastructure facilities in the suburbs did not return to the regional treasury, but were re-registered on ZAO "Project" and its subsidiaries, and offshore companies controlled by Pashkovsky and Kopylenko.


100% owner of the company "Project" was a leading manager of the raider team by Pashkovsky-Kopylenko, Zoya Galeyeva and its CEO - Georgy Kopylenko. In the result of "restructure" of the assets at more than 15 billion rubles -those from previously stolen from suburbs by the clan of Kuznetsov-Bullock - were not returned to the region and were settled in ZAO "Project" and its subsidiaries: OOO "Velyaminovo-Development”, OOO "Invest Consulting" and OOO "Paritet" (it has a building re-registered on it in Tver worth about 170 million rubles), OOO "RIGroup Business, OOO “RIGroup Plaza Stupino”, OOO Sibur-Energo" (about 160 million rubles .) ZAO TeploInvestEnergo ", ZAO "TeploEnergoInvest”, OOO “Horugvino-1” (12 ha plot in Solnechnogorsk area worth of 50 million rubles), OOO "Echo-2" (land of 140 acres in the Istra district worth of 2.1 billion rubles.) OOO “Promstroy" and "Tsifra Odin”.


The assets and funds were also sold to third parties or displayed on the controlled companies: marketing companies in Belgorod, Tver, Kursk and Smolensk (about 2 billion rubles.) OOO “BK-Estate" (premises on the Rozhdestvesky Boulevard in Moscow worth about 443 mln.).Trading and entertainment complexes in Klin, Sergiev Posad, Serpukhov, Vidny and Kolomna, OOO ENERGOPROMINVEST "(about 390 million rubles.), OAO PROTEP" (about 187 million rub.) were sold for approximately 2.5 billion rubles.


In December 2009, Orsi gave to the Moscow suburbs one of the assets of "RIGroup", a construction company "Spetsstroy-2", it told the business media about that with fanfare. However Pashkovsky and Kopylenko forgot to mention that before returning to the State, they released a legal entity from the assets of 191 million rubles by selling the company-owned land (20 hectares) in the Chekhov district and 10 apartments in a building in Fryazino.


Generally, during the two years the “restructure makers" returned three assets to the region from the empire" RIGroup”, inflated by budget money and attained under its control: OOO" SK "Spetsstroy-2" (transferred with debts for 3.3 billion rubles, as soon as "Orsi " sold or withdrew all liquid assets from the company before the transfer); bankrupt company ZAO "Stroyinvest" and OAO "KIT "(" Public investment and technologies "). However, shares of the last two "assets" never reached the regional treasury - at least, there are no supporting documents of the proceedings in the regional government. In general, for two years of active work "Orsi"

did not return a single "real" ruble to the region. Instead, the regional treasury gained new debts that used to be the debts of “RIGroup” previously It is understandable why the government of Moscow region flatly refuses to discuss with journalists the outcome of the commissioned “restructure makers ", Pashkovsky and Kopylenko.


In addition to the above assets, top managers of "Orsi" managed to sell or re-register assets and securities for a few billion rubles. Prior to its transfer of OOO "SK "Spetsstroy-2" to the Oblast, property bonds and bonds of OOO “RIGroup" and OOO"RADIONET" were sold for 400 million rubles. The scheme was as follows: On behalf of "SK" Spetsstroy-2", Pashkovsky actually concluded a contract of trust management with himself - in the person of the controlled OOO "STK-finance ".Thus, "STK-finance” had bonds " Spetsstroy-2 "," Radionet "," RIGroup "- passed to it; in total 1,5 billion of the notional value (the actual market valuation of these assets amounted to 400 million rubles). By the order the same Pashkovsky, the bonds were replaced with shares of ZAO "StroyInvest" and OAO "KIT" committing a bankruptcy procedure.


The land that had to be returned to the region was cynically sold as well: 300 hectares in the village of Kuznechikovo in the Klinsky district worth about 490 million rubles and 23 acres in Narofominsk area of 115 million rubles, they were registered to "NARA-1”, as well as the land in Dmitrovskaya, Serpukhov, Istra and Klinsky district near Moscow.

Stolen from us, stolen from you - UNAMEKRAL Trading Limited

The police believe that Pashkovsky and Kopylenko originally planned to act on the logic of Bulgakov’s character Sharikov from “Heart of a Dog”. That is to say, "take everything and divide" - between themselves, naturally. Having learned about the escape of Kuznetsov abroad in 2008, the group of honored raiders agreed that it was their finest hour. They had contacts in influential "Rostechnologies”, they were familiar with Dmitry Demidov, a member of the clan by Kuznetsov-Bullock, the then director of the state “Moscow Region Mortgage Agency" and "Moscow Region Mortgage Corporation” (now Demidov is in the wanted list, as well ex-Finance Minister Kuznetsov and his wife, an American Janne Bullock). So this is how the puzzle has been put together.


The only thing lacking was the official status, otherwise the fugitive former minister Kuznetsov would have believed in the ability of Pashkovsky and Kopylenko to solve problems at the state level. This was not a barrier however - in fact a clever and cunning Georgy Kopylenko (namely, he was the brain in the raider structure, while Pashkovsky - the ringleader, and Zoya Galeyeva - the main organizer and performer) came up to play on the actual crisis theme in 2008. Thus ZAO “Open Market of building investments” came into being, which was positioned as the market for the debts trade for developers and builders, its aim was to help the state stop the collapse of the market of real estate under construction.


Under those beautiful goals the participants of ZAO “Orsi "(or close to it OAO “Orsi" and "Orsi groups") became the investment division CEO of “Rostekhnologii” and OOO “Oboroneks" Mikhail Shelkov (25%), SMP-bank by Arkady Rothenberg (25%) and ZAO "UK" Razvitie" (27,5%), Mikhail Cherkasov. Having saluted these famous names, Pashkovsky and Kopylenko managed to realize their scam of the century.


In July 2010 SMP Banking and UK “Razvitie” announced of their withdrawal from the" Orsi"; probably, they had understood the true motives of its top managers. In early August the offices of Orsi and cottages of its top managers were searched. Georgy and Zoya Kopylenko Galeyeva were questioned, and the ringleader Andrey Pashkovsky managed to escape and to decline communication with the investigator at the UK Ministry of Internal Affairs.


The cynicism of Pashkovsky and Kopylenko becomes particularly evident when the names of their offshore areas become known. A peculiar sense of humor is generally inherent to fraudsters who are accustomed to working in a grand style. Thus, in early 2000’s, free newspapers in Moscow and St. Petersburg published advertisement of the next super drug that seemed to cure all deseases - from lameness and stuttering to hemorrhoids and dipsomania. They offered to order it by phone, because the pharmacy had not got such a "unique product” yet. The organizers of the next scam were cynically called - "LOHEIN” (in Russin –“a hayseed”).


Thus, “restructure makers" Pashkovsky and Kopylenko transferred the "secondary pumped” assets in offshore accounts, two of which have charactonym names: Cyprus" UNAMEKRAL Trading Limited "and the Seychelles “Azero Business Inc”. Indeed, having stolen from everyone, every business multiplied on zero.

A scheme can be better than schemes

But lets come back to the history of fraud by "Orsi". So, in December of 2008, Pashkovsky and Kopylenko talked with Kuznetsov and conducted a memorandum. The company's assets were placed under the management of "Orsi" - without any documented formalities, upon agreement with Kuznetsov. The gullible managers of "Rosveba" were pressed tough enough. Sometimes the stamps and documentation of the company were literally ripped out by direct threats. Just in word, but still convincing (Pashkovsky once has acquired the necessary "skills of the nineties").


At the beginning of 2009 all the structures mentioned in the memorandum of Kuznetsov-Pashkovsky had their top management replaced. The leadership was taken by people of Pashkovsky. The CEO of the main creditor - OAO MOITK - Lipkin signed an agreement on debt restructuring. Now it is clear that the Pashkovsky did not plan to make debt payments as "MOITK" expected, but still he was granted a long grace period. This, Pashkovsky and Co. got the time to implement the planned "restructuring" in their favor.


The following year was marked by the orgy, comparable to the acts of Kuznetsov and Ko. Pashkovsky formally resigned as CEO of "Orsi", then along with Kopylenko he effectively conducted a set of measures to transfer the property to his structures, a sale of assets and prepared a series of abusive bankruptcies.


For example, the significant share of property by telecommunication company “Radionet” and its eleven affiliated companies - OAO “MASTAK”, OOO “Tele-Service-M ", OAO" Troitsk Telecom, ZAO “Lan-Telecom”, OOO “ROSVEB Tver”, OOO “ROSVEB Severo-Zapad”, OOO “Vostoktelecom”, OOO “Inet”, OOO “Startel”, OOO “UNIKOMPORT ", ZAO” Firma"Progress" - passed to ZAO “Project” controlled by Kopylenko and Pashkovsky through a newly created OOO “Tsifra Odin”.


The scheme is as follows. By the order of Pashkovsky, the authorized capital of " Tsifra Odin " involved equipment and real estate of "Radionet”. The authorized capital of " Tsifra Odin " got increased and distributed among the firms by Pashkovsky. Then, a 100% stake in the authorized capital of " Tsifra Odin " went to Cyprus and the Seychelles offshore: "UNAMEKRAL TRADING LIMITED (Cyprus, 51.07%), Rekambo Group SA (Seychelles, 27.13%), Azero Business Inc. "(Seychelles, 11.94%)," Kelemvar Assets Ltd (Seychelles, 9.88%).


"Radionet" was empty and placed under the supervision of the Arbitration Court of Moscow on the insolvency proceeding. Characteristically, the arbitration proceedings were initiated, in particular, on the application of OAO RusKomProm controlled by Pashkovsky "which has received more than 51% of the share capital of OOO" Tsifra Odin ".


At the same time in the village Lyutoretskoe Chekhov district of Moscow region passed from " Spetsstroy-2" to one of Pashkovsky’s company - OOO PROMSTROY "- its carrying valueamounted to 162 million rubles. After such a thorough increment to the capital of "PromStroy", in September 2009, its 100% share was sold to ZAO "Project". "Project" did not pay for the share, and the debt incurred was transferred to an offshore company Lazarnelle Trading Corp. In its turn, it gave Two and a half thousand shares of bankrupting ZAO "KIT" to "Spetsstroy-2"...


Such was the giddy carousel of "the restructuring in Pashkovsky and Kopylenko style», let us consider the scheme with only one company. We have excluded such "little things" as 20 millionth rewards for" effective management paid by the" Orsi " from the corporate funds of OOO “SK “Spetsstroy-2"


Upon completion of the complex of these actions, Pashkovsky and Kopylenko initiated bankruptcy proceedings of the seven companies purchased from Kuznetsov. The endings were to sink, leaving on the surface only 15 billion rubles of net income of the raiders - this is the total financial loss of OAO “MOITK: and the Moscow region because of the activities of the Pashkovsky and co brigade.


However, as mentioned above, on August 5, 2010 the first serious setback occurred in the raider career of Andrey Vladislavovich: IC of Ministry of Internal Affairs under a criminal case number 280008 (the case of theft by fraud of the assets of Moscow Region by the group of Kuznetsov-Bullock-Nosov-Kotlyarenko) searched and seized the documents in "Orsi". Georgy Kopylenko and Zoya Galeev, former deputy director of "Orsi" (owns 100% stake in ZAO "Project") were detained and questioned.


Andrey Pashkovsky managed to escape before the investigative activities started, on August 5. It is likely that law enforcement made a leakage of information. His disappearance confirmed the validity of suspicion against him. In general, this nervous breakdown is quite understandable. But now Pashkovsky can not count on being released on recognizance not to leave or on bail if detained.


Supposedly, soon Andrey Vladimirovich Pashkovsky will either escape in a warm non-visa country, or as another "economic migrant" will end up in some European capital. For example, in London or Paris, where his predecessor - ex-Finance Minister Alexey Kuznetsov - is hiding from investidation – he had primary pumped assets in the Moscow region.


***Memorandum between Andrey Pashkovsky and Alexey Kuznetsov

Alexey Gabulbarov