Amber transformed from everyday in luxury jewelry. Approaching the precious metals. As it is impossible to pass by the gold lying on the ground, so it is impossible not to pick up amber. Every day, hundreds of "prospectors" flock to where under a layer of earth and clay is 70 million years old amber. But to extract, collect and catch from the sea, raw, by law, has the right to only one person. Legal. Kaliningrad Amber Plant. All other recognized offenders.
During the 2014 MVD and FSB, according to official reports, we conducted 412 joint raids to arrest the "black diggers". There were arrested violators 1229. At Amber illegal miners last season seized 47 tons of raw amber, 389 water pumps, five cars "UAZ" with built-in motor pumps, four excavators, tractors and watercraft. These losses - the value negligible compared with a profit, followed by chasing miners. They continue to dig. Despite the fact that the unauthorized extraction punishable by Article 7.5 of the Administrative Code.
Kaliningrad Amber Plant was created on the basis of a German factory that existed in Palmniken town on the Baltic Sea at Koenigsberg. In the Soviet period Combine dragged quiet existence. Raw materials are mined, produced banal necklaces and brooches. In any case, citizens were forbidden to touch the inner light shining stone. Informally. Just personalized jewelry is not welcomed. The crude was supplied only Lithuania and Latvia - as a republic with traditional crafts, and even in Tsarskoye Selo for the restoration of the famous Amber Room. Finished products abroad were supplied only through "Almazuvelirexport." In the early 90s it became possible to amber and it is fashionable to do everything. In the village of Amber (Palmniken), Svetlogorsk, Baltic, Pioneer, and Zelenogradsk Kaliningrad thrive in terms of craftsmanship. Business proved to be profitable. The war began for the stone. In those years, many perished from the bullets and shovels. Since infant industries.
It does not stay away from redistribution and state. Amber Plant turned into an arena of battle. He repeatedly passed from hand to hand a mob another. It was privatized and rasprivatizirovali. Was unjustified bankruptcy. Who was the real director of succinic war - is still unknown. By circumstantial evidence the industry is very controlling person of high rank, the Russian scale. Because the business money circulating space. Comparable to the budget of the country.
Combine the Russian Ministry of Finance submitted to the 2013th. In that year, the state unitary enterprise Kaliningrad Amber Plant went into the hands of Minister Sergei Chemezov, the state corporation Rostec. The status of the State Unitary Enterprise Plant lasted until 2015. He finally brought out from under the control of the state in February 2015, making all the same in a public joint stock company with the authorized capital of 1,034,499,000 rubles. Reliable information on the activities of succinic barns completely disappeared. Change of ownership occurs in the execution of orders of President Vladimir Putin Pr-2151 from 10.08.2012, "On the modernization of the amber industry in Russia."
Rostec immediately appointed a director. He became a professional member of the KGB Mikhail Zacepin. Here's how the new head of assessed their competence, giving interviews to local television in April 2015. Host of Christina Dvurechenskaya asks: "When you received this offer, you understand what this industry is that this is the rock from which it is taken, how to use it - all the specifics of the process?" - "Honestly, no. Well, I'd heard that there is such an amber plant. I have heard that there is some kind of amber ...".
- Before Rostec set a goal for the removal of amber factory to a new technological level and production to expand its presence on the Russian and international markets - said Sergey Chemezov, General Director of the State Corporation Rostec. - The key objectives are to improve transparency, optimization of the organizational structure of the enterprise, forming a complete production cycle from extraction to the creation of finished products that meet market requirements, and increase the volume of production by more than 70% until 2020 and, globally, the restoration of amber as a national brand Russia.
Just fabulous dreams. Under the auspices of Rostec Plant lasted for 2 years. During this time, a step in the direction of "new technological level" is not done. Work on the instructions of the director walking along the bottom of the quarry and gather the largest pieces in tin buckets. Rose "nugget" - a million. And at this time the police raided on poachers in Zelenograd district. On the "breakthrough" colorfully tell the hidden video footage are regularly uploaded to YouTube. "Transparency" - just a buzzword. In fact, the public is completely deprived of access to information on the activities of the plant. But the first thing the next director undertook to direct its order among the recipients of the raw material. He demanded that all the processing enterprises, individual entrepreneurs, private jewelers gave him full details of their capacity, the number of employees and justified need. Ostensibly such an order is required to prevent illegal reception (money!) Amber with a view to resale abroad.
For nearly two years the team Zatsepina yantarschikov kept on a starvation diet. Some of this economic policy collapsed. Last year, businessman Yuri Zamotin was forced to close one of its processing enterprises, leaving the other 12 people.
Michael Simukov, Kaliningrad amber processor from your enterprise for the year 2012 as the taxes listed in the budget of 3.68 million rubles tax. Last year, he paid only half a million.
Complete rout by the police underwent LLC "Amber plus." Three hundred people out of work, deprived of your favorite things, and their families - income. Private enterprise "Ambervest" last year, has invested in the construction of a new production building for more than 2 million rubles. But the shop that can provide up to 500 jobs, idle.
At a meeting in Kaliningrad Regional Duma Zamotin lift the veil kombinatovskoy secrets "Amber plant for" black schemes "transfer across the entrepreneur Yemelyanov and another five companies all high-quality raw materials to Moscow. From Moscow - directly to China. In recent months, Plant I sold 100 kilograms. Of these, I corner threw 95 kilograms, because this raw material is impossible in principle to work. It is a non-liquid slag. I'm such materials have never seen. "Yuvelirprom" (subsidiary company of the plant) selects itself a good raw material with the code fraction over one thousand grams and sends Left firms. Money realistic, we have to make, and to give in the form of taxes, goes to China. The Chinese, I am sure, give carriers crazy kickbacks. With the bag 32 th fraction (32 mm diameter) they earned from 90 to 130 thousand dollars. How much of the year, these five firms have taken 32 minutes or more fractions! The money the state had really steal. "
In 2014, the Kaliningrad region swept by a series of revolts. Yantarschiki staged strikes and demonstrations. Was published information about the true state of the industry, there are already nearly three thousand people. Hundreds of processors combine denied a raw. Amber was necessary for sales abroad. The international market is demanding more and more.
Most processors united in Amber Union. Organization defamed and persecuted. When the members of the union sent statements and appeals to the president of the country, the Prime Minister, the Prosecutor General, they were calculated on IP-addresses, caught, dragged the prosecutor's office for questioning. The police arranged exemplary flogging activists on television and in court papers.
Government of the Kaliningrad region to pose as a caring patron: that will do everything to ensure that local craftsmen are not left without a job, it is necessary to turn amber in the Russian company a miracle, and the amber capital of the drag from Gdansk to Kaliningrad. And even announced that the summer will be organized a grand exhibition of international level, which will wipe their noses Lithuanian and Polish masters. The event was moved to October. And then completely forgot about the promise. Demonstrate the exhibition was nothing. Not because extinct craftsmen. Because the best raw samples left for strontium. Organizers of the "Great Amber Road" to China grew rich unscrupulously.
Amber Plant through Khrabrovo Airport last year has shipped tens of tons of raw sugar. Through the company's trusted intermediaries. Almost all amber in the end turns out to be in Hong Kong.
Moscow company "Asteria", specializing in trade, financial intermediation and real estate, Kaliningrad amber plant in the short term until September 2014 sold amber raw more than 50 tons in February - 3,000 kg in March - more than 5,000 kg in April - 11000 kg, May - 2300 kg, in June - more than 15000 kg, July - 1600 kg, in August - 3100 kg, in September - more than 10500 kg. Including - 500g stones - 100 pieces, kilo - 5 pieces, fractions 146 mm - 1000 kg, 50-100 gram pieces - 100 kg.
From the Ministry of Internal Affairs published the Kaliningrad region Help known that amber combine in the past year are directly sold abroad 60 tons of raw amber, amber is not engaged processing Moscow company "Almaz guarantor" exported to plant 32.8 tonnes. This amber, as stated in the certificate, in the end turns out to be in China.
- To date, the large mass of raw materials, the best raw materials released five or six companies of Moscow - said at a meeting in Kaliningrad Regional Duma Vasily Simonov, chairman of the Union of Amber. - And a large part of this amber is today in China. It is about 120 tons. If you believe the prices, which gives a table of Hong Kong, this is, my dear, 159 million euros. Nearly 8 billion rubles!
At the same time, 100 local companies have received a total of 20 tons. Of these, according to the official accounting, 80% of raw amber for conversion into jewelry is not suitable.
Combine official extracts from the depths of up to 350 tons per year. Some sources claim that the entire production can be up to 700-750 tons - if you add unaccounted amber and what is mined illegally chernokapateli.
From Soviet-style mill left almost nothing. Nikolai Petukhov, a former first deputy general director, says bitterly that closed today turned amber, procurement, melting, oshkurovochny shop. Destroyed organized system of social protection operation of the plant.
- Combine Forces to me and when I was built almost 70 thousand sq. M. meters of housing, a dining room for 320 seats, wastewater treatment plants, sewer and sewer network Stadium. What did not was! Now complete desolation - lamenting Nikolai. - Everything comes to a complete degeneration.
Profiteering aspirations led to the fact that Russia was losing international prestige. Lithuania, Poland, China, the United States we are treated solely as a source of raw materials.
What can and should the government do? The first step is to eliminate the monopoly on the extraction of raw materials. The second - to create equal conditions for all involved in the amber craft. Such a policy could put an end to illegal mining history. That's how the Polish government received. The neighboring country is allowed a free extraction of amber. The license for one year costs about 1000 dollars. This approach is beneficial both to the state and entrepreneurs. In Russia, so it is impossible, because income can lose kryshevateli in uniform.
In 2005, Russia was appointed an auction for the right to exploration and production of amber in the field Nadezhda (that is where the poachers are operating, the capture of which report regularly to the police). It was filed. The date. But suddenly the Federal Subsoil Use Agency suspended the announced tenders. The auction did not take place.
Director Amber Plant Zacepin happily reported that the volume of tax payments in the last year compared with 2013 increased by 44,5% and amounted to 183.3 million rubles. It is negligible!
... Gold reserves in Russia in June 2015 amounted to 1250.9 tons. Over the last year the central bank has increased the reserves by 167.5 tons. According to official statements Kaliningrad Amber Plant annually produces 350 tons of "sun stone". In 20 percent of the extracted raw material consists of high-grade copies. What is 70 tons. Which cost as much as gold. Therefore, only one Kaliningrad region could constantly swapping amber gold annually replenish the country's gold reserves by 40 percent. Russia neglected this opportunity.